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郑爽“代孕弃养”风波,刷屏背后的思考

Author:赵海屏 | 2021.01.28


1月18日,郑爽被曝与前男友张恒在美国代孕生子,如今两个孩子已经一岁多。19日午间,郑爽回应“代孕风波”,表示自己在中国国土之上没有违背法律。一时间,代孕、弃养等话题瞬间在网络引爆,话题热度持续走高。各大媒体陆续发声,纷纷指明代孕在我国是被禁止的,是违法的。

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在我国,代孕实际上也一直是被明令禁止的。根据卫生部发布的《人类辅助生殖技术管理办法》第三条规定:“人类辅助生殖技术的应用应当在医疗机构中进行,以医疗为目的,并符合国家计划生育政策、伦理原则和有关法律规定。禁止以任何形式买卖配子、合子、胚胎。医疗机构和医务人员不得实施任何形式的代孕技术。” 但是,该规定仅针对医疗机构和医务人员,而对公民个人或者中介机构的代孕行为并无明确规定。2015年,《人口与计划生育法》修订中,在最终通过的版本也删除了草案中“禁止代孕”的相关条款。

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那么,如果出现代孕纠纷,我国法律又如何认定呢? 代孕合同虽然出自双方当事人真实意思表示,但是,代孕毕竟是人类辅助生殖技术的一种,民间说法即为“借腹生子”。即孕母与委托者为约定代孕中双方的权利义务而订立的有偿合同,孕母与委托者明显是出于牟利之目的,将孩子作为商品交易的对象,故代孕合同有违公序良俗、社会公德,与我国合同法的基本原则和其他相关法律规定相悖,其违法性显而易见,因此,应当认定为无效合同。孕母无法根据代孕合同要求委托者提供报酬,委托者也不可能据此得到代母所生子女的抚养权。

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然而,无论对非法代孕行为如何否定与谴责,代孕所生子女实属无辜,孩子的合法权益应得到法律的保护。因此,不管是自然生育的子女或是以人工生殖方式包括代孕方式所生的子女,均应得到同等的保护。那么,“代孕”所生孩子的归属权又该如何认定呢?目前,我国法律对此缺乏相关规定,理论上主要有血缘说、分娩说、契约说(或称人工生殖目的说)、子女利益最佳说等四种学说。法院判决中多支持“分娩说”,即“孩子是谁生的就归谁”,委托者肯定无法直接获得孩子父母的身份,自然没有抚养权。因为“分娩说”符合传统民法中“分娩者为母”的认定原则,亦与其他人工生殖方式中的亲子关系认定标准相同,且符合我国传统的伦理原则及价值观念。此外,“分娩者为母”的认定原则与我国目前对代孕行为的禁止立场也相一致。但是,考虑到孩子和委托者在遗传信息上也有极为密切的关系,且孕母往往也是弱势的一方,如孕母确实难以独立负担孩子的全部抚养义务,委托者也应承担一定的义务。虽然有些委托者在理论上也可能通过“收养”获得父母身份,但这不仅需要孕母的同意,还需要其满足“有特殊困难无力抚养”等条件。在一定程度,孕母在抚养权方面还是掌握了主动权。

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郑爽被曝涉嫌在美国代孕还试图弃养孩子后,如果情况属实,并且她也已经通过美国的法律获得了孩子的母亲身份,那么她最有可能涉及违法的其实是“试图弃养”的行为。在我国,该行为也可能因违反抚养义务而承担民事责任,情节严重的更可能构成“遗弃罪”

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代孕这件事的复杂性,远远不是你情我愿、互利共赢那么简单,不能把它简化到市场契约的层面对待,伴随着高利润的商业代孕,这也将变得更为复杂和难以约束。如果把代孕作为一种让生活更加美好的技术进步,那么它的使用应建立在对生命的渴望和尊重的基础上,并应限定严格的伦理边界。

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