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民法典系列:《施工合同解释一(2021)》的变化与不变

Author:霍进城 | 2020.12.31


2021年1月1日,新中国成立以来第一部以法典命名、具有里程碑意义的《民法典》即将施行。最高法院已全面完成了591件司法解释及相关规范性文件、139件指导性案例的清理工作,修改制定了第一批与民法典配套的司法解释和规范性文件。在民法典即将施行之际,12月30日,最高法院举行贯彻实施民法典全面完成司法解释清理和首批司法解释新闻发布会,按照“统一规划、分批制定,急用先行、重点推进”原则,发布了与民法典配套的第一批共7件新的司法解释,与民法典同步施行。

2021年1月1日,《关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释(一),法释〔2020〕25号》(简称《施工合同解释一(2021)》),正式实施,并同时废止了《关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释,法释〔2004〕14号》(简称《施工合同解释(2005)》)及《关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释(二),法释〔2018〕20号》(简称《施工合同解释二(2019)》)。康达第一时间对民法典时代的《施工合同解释一(2021)》进行解读。

《施工合同解释一(2021)》较之前的《施工合同解释(2005)》、《施工合同解释二(2019)》,主要的变化和不变有如下几点:


工程款优先受偿权的行使期限,由6个月变更为18个月

工程款优先受偿权,是本次施工合同解释最大的变化之一,主要包括两个方面:

第一、第41条变更了《施工合同解释二(2019)》第22条规定,将工程款优先权行使期限由6个月变更为18个月。具体为“承包人应当在合理期限内行使建设工程价款优先受偿权,但最长不得超过十八个月,自发包人应当给付建设工程价款之日起算。”

第二、新增加了第36条,明确工程款优先受偿权优于“抵押权”和其他债权。具体为“承包人根据民法典第八百零七条规定享有的建设工程价款优先受偿权优于抵押权和其他债权。”


“无效合同参照有效合同结算”的表述成为历史

《施工合同解释(2005)》第2条规定“建设工程施工合同无效,但建设工程经竣工验收合格,承包人请求参照合同约定支付工程价款的,应予支持”,无效合同参照有效合同结算,也成为建设工程领域最常见的意见。但因《民法典》第793条“建设工程施工合同无效,但是建设工程经验收合格的,可以参照合同关于工程价款的约定折价补偿承包人”的规定,本次施工合同解释第24条采取了“折价补偿承包人”的表述,“无效合同参照有效合同结算”将成为历史。


“合同无效收缴非法所得”不再提及

《施工合同解释(2005)》第4条规定“承包人非法转包、违法分包建设工程或者没有资质的实际施工人借用有资质的建筑施工企业名义与他人签订建设工程施工合同的行为无效。人民法院可以根据民法通则第一百三十四条规定,收缴当事人已经取得的非法所得”。关于合同无效后收缴违法所得,自司法解释实施至今,实践中鲜有适用,本次司法解释并未再提及此项内容。


《施工合同解释二(2019)》主体内容未发生变化

本次施工合同解释,内容基本来源于《施工合同解释(2005)》及《施工合同解释二(2019)》。尤其是《施工合同解释二(2019)》,除因民法典取代合同法,文字表述发生变化外,主体内容并未发生实质变化。


附:《施工合同解释一(2021)》与《施工合同解释(2005)》、《施工合同解释二(2019)》对照表

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